How to use numpyro to marginalize discrete variables in a diagnostic classification tree model

The diagnostic classification tree model is a class of educational measurement models used to model student responses with a response matrix of N rows and I columns, where N represents the number of students and I represents the number of questions (items).

As shown in the figure, the first node indicates whether student n exhibits guessing behavior on the question i. When guessing behavior is exhibited, the probability of a correct answer for subject n on question i is 0.25. When the student does not exhibit guessing behavior, the probability of a correct answer to question i is determined according to the category in which student n is placed, e.g., when the student is in category I, the probability of a correct answer for the student is 0.9.


Based on this model in the figure, I converted it into a code for numpyro, however, this code encountered problems and reported errors when enumerating discrete variables.

import numpy as np

from jax import nn, random, vmap
import jax.numpy as jnp

import numpyro
from numpyro import handlers
import numpyro.distributions as dist
from numpyro.infer import MCMC, NUTS, Predictive, DiscreteHMCGibbs, MixedHMC, HMC
from numpyro.infer.reparam import LocScaleReparam
from numpyro.ops.indexing import Vindex
import itertools

N,I = 20, 5
Y = np.random.binomial(1,0.5, (20,5))
# with numpyro.handlers.seed(rng_seed=0):

def m():
    student_plate = numpyro.plate("student", N, dim=-2)
    item_plate = numpyro.plate("item", I, dim=-1)

    # Assumpation there are 4 class of student, and the correct of each class on each item is known
    classs_correct_prob = jnp.stack([jnp.array([0.9,0.8,0.6,0.5])
                                     for i in range(I)]).T # <---- shape = (class_count, item_count)

    class_prevalence = jnp.repeat(0.25,4)
    with student_plate:  
        # sample class of student
        student_c = numpyro.sample("cat", dist.Categorical(class_prevalence),
                                    infer={"enumerate": "parallel"})

        # prior of student is flaged as guessing
        gussing_flag_prior = numpyro.sample("gussing_flag_prior", dist.Beta(1,5))

        with item_plate:
            # get the flag of rg
            gussing_flag_idx = numpyro.sample("gussing_flag_idx", 
                                                infer={"enumerate": "parallel"})
            gussing_flag = Vindex(jnp.asarray([0,1]))[gussing_flag_idx]

            # correct prob for student on item if student not guessing
            c_p_not_g = Vindex(classs_correct_prob)[student_c]
            # correct prob consider gussing flag
            correct_prob =  0.25*gussing_flag + c_p_not_g.squeeze()*(1-gussing_flag)

            numpyro.sample("Y",dist.Bernoulli(probs=correct_prob.squeeze()), obs=Y)


Output exceeds the size limit. Open the full output data in a text editor
ValueError                                Traceback (most recent call last)
    [... skipping hidden 1 frame]

File ~/anaconda3/envs/pymc3/lib/python3.10/site-packages/jax/_src/, in cache.<locals>.wrap.<locals>.wrapper(*args, **kwargs)
    218 else:
--> 219   return cached(config._trace_context(), *args, **kwargs)

File ~/anaconda3/envs/pymc3/lib/python3.10/site-packages/jax/_src/, in cache.<locals>.wrap.<locals>.cached(_, *args, **kwargs)
    210 @functools.lru_cache(max_size)
    211 def cached(_, *args, **kwargs):
--> 212   return f(*args, **kwargs)

File ~/anaconda3/envs/pymc3/lib/python3.10/site-packages/jax/_src/lax/, in _broadcast_shapes_cached(*shapes)
    124 @cache()
    125 def _broadcast_shapes_cached(*shapes: Tuple[int, ...]) -> Tuple[int, ...]:
--> 126   return _broadcast_shapes_uncached(*shapes)

File ~/anaconda3/envs/pymc3/lib/python3.10/site-packages/jax/_src/lax/, in _broadcast_shapes_uncached(*shapes)
    141 if result_shape is None:
--> 142   raise ValueError("Incompatible shapes for broadcasting: {}"
    143                    .format(tuple(shape_list)))
    144 return result_shape

ValueError: Incompatible shapes for broadcasting: ((1, 20, 5), (2, 4, 5))
--> 142   raise ValueError("Incompatible shapes for broadcasting: {}"
    143                    .format(tuple(shape_list)))
    144 return result_shape

ValueError: Incompatible shapes for broadcasting: ((1, 20, 5), (2, 4, 5))

I am confused by this error because I can’t find the array of this shape.

with numpyro.handlers.seed(rng_seed=0):
    trace = numpyro.handlers.trace(m).get_trace()


How can I use numpyro to marginalize a discrete variable in the tree model and implement the estimation of the parameters?
Any advice or reference will be appreciated~

I fixed this error by replace:

numpyro.sample("Y",dist.Bernoulli(probs=correct_prob.squeeze()), obs=Y)


numpyro.sample("Y",dist.Bernoulli(probs=correct_prob.squeeze(-1)), obs=Y)

Does anyone know the cause of this error?

Hi @qpchen, squeeze() destroys all singleton batch dimensions so it does not work with vectorized code. Similarly for operators like x.sum(), x.max().

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